My plan right now is to use some old computers (windows & macs) as servers and then focusing on playability and scalability vs. graphics and art. Once we have a solid base and are confident we can actually make money we will then expand.
2 Best Resources for learning PHP
3 Best Resources for Learning C++
Ask yourself the question if learning C++ is a good idea anyway. It's a complex language and it will take a lot of time to master. The focus is now shifting to more... productive technologies like .NET which also tend to make the web developer's job a bit simpler. I would thus recommend starting out with C#. You will not be bothered with the syntactic hell of C++ and you'll have a huge standard library at your disposal.
5 Resources for learning Database Management
I can't recommend anything good for practical database management. Try looking at O'Reilly for some possible guides on SQL.
6 Resources for learning Server Management
This requires practical know-how in my eyes and hardly any book will teach you all the quirks. It's like having books for carpenters.
7 Resources for learning good game design.
8 Resources for learning Network systems. (How the bits break down, what a packet is.)
9 Resources for free or cheap textbooks / college level courses. (I like knowledge but don't like academics)
Good game design is mastered, I can't recommend many books and I've read many. And just don't go over to GameDev.net asking these questions or they'll be quick to recommend expensive junk written by kids. Get the book "Computer Networks" by Tannenbaum, it's the Bible on networking and Tannenbaum has a very smooth didactic style.
11 Open source programs and solutions for misc Game Design tasks. (Digital Synthesizers for sound effects, and um... other stuff I can't think of because i'm a noob. All I have is GIMP, MAMP, etc.)
Wait, wait... get some paper and a pen first. When you start needing the software, come back. You don't need it now.
Can you (legally and easily) implement C++ programming in a browser without a download? Is C++ client side capable?
Legally yes, easily not at all. C++ is everything-capable, but there are simpler solutions. Listen to Reedbeta.
Can you interface server-side database languages with client-side browser languages?
Why would you want to do that??? It would be hard to manage security, but you can make a bridge if you really need it.
Are any of the listed languages going to be drastically changed anytime soon? Will me learning C++ be useless due to C+++ or something?
Well, yes, people are trying to get rid of PHP. Developing with it is quite hard. Other platforms as .NET and Java will let you be more productive while ignoring system-specific aspects (You don't need to know about electronics to use your MP3-player). .NET for example has a powerful technology called LINQ that allows you to query pretty much every resource in the same way, no matter if ternary storage database or a single text file on a FAT32 system. Java's web technologies also allow for easy aspect-oriented development.
C++ will be around a bit more for sure, but its days are also counted. It used to be good in the days where one needed both performance and some self-documentation in the code, but in today's world of quad cores it's almost useless. Compilers are also so advanced, they can just-in-time compile Python's byte code to machine code with almost the same quality. Even embedded programming is moving towards .NET (Netduino) and Java (Arduino), because people want to be a lot more productive with a short learning curve. Take my advice and stay away from C++ unless your job depends on it.
Also, if someone would have the kindness the give me an email address for further noob questions that would be incredibly appreciated.
Will PM you.